The Relationship of Jews and Blacks: Some Quotes

Thanks Willie Martin

> Black Slavery
> Rabbi Marc Lee Raphael
> "Jews also took an active part in the Dutch colonial slave
> trade; indeed, the bylaws of the Recife and Mauricia
> congregations (1648) included an imposta (Jewish tax) of
> five soldos for each Negro slave a Brazilian Jew purchased
> from the West Indies Company. Slave auctions were
> postponed if they fell on a Jewish holiday. In Curacao in
> the seventeenth century, as well as in the British
> colonies of Barbados and Jamaica in the eighteenth
> century, Jewish merchants played a major role in the slave
> trade. In fact, in all the American colonies, whether
> French (Martinique), British, or Dutch, Jewish merchants
> frequently dominated.
> "This was no less true on the North American mainland,
> where during the eighteenth century Jews participated in
> the 'triangular trade' that brought slaves from Africa to
> the West Indies and there exchanged them for molasses,
> which in turn was taken to New England and converted into
> rum for sale in Africa. Isaac Da Costa of Charleston in
> the 1750's, David Franks of Philadelphia in the 1760's,
> and Aaron Lopez of Newport in the late 1760's and early
> 1770's dominated Jewish slave trading on the American
> continent."
> Jews and Judaism in the United States a
> Documentary History (New York: Behrman House,
> Inc., Pub, 1983), p. 14. Rabbi Marc Lee Raphael is the
> Nathan and Sophia Gumenick Professor of Judaic Studies,
> Professor of Religion, and Chair, Department of Religion,
> The College of William and Mary, and a Visiting Fellow of
> Wolfson College, Oxford University. He has been the editor
> of the quarterly journal, American Jewish History, for 19
> years, and a visiting professor at Brown University, the
> University of Pittsburgh, HUC-JIR, UCLA, and Case Western
> Reserve University. He came to The College of William and
> Mary in 1989 after 20 years at Ohio State University. He
> is the author of many books on Jews and Judaism in
> America, and his most recent publication (with his wife
> Linda Schermer Raphael) is When Night Fell: An Anthology
> of Holocaust Short Stories (Rutgers University Press,
> 1999). He is now writing Judaism in America for the
> Contemporary American Series of Columbia University Press.
> Visit him at the website of his synagoge, Bet Aviv, in
> Columbia, Maryland.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Ira Rosenwaike
> "In Charleston, Richmond and Savannah the large majority
> (over three-fourths) of the Jewish households contained
> one or more slaves; in Baltimore, only one out of three
> households were slaveholding; in New York, one out of
> eighteen....Among the slaveholding households the median
> number of slaves owned ranged from five in Savannah to one
> in New York." "The Jewish Population in 1820," in Abraham
> J. Karp, ed., The Jewish Experience in America: Selected
> Studies from the Publications of the American Jewish
> Historical Society (Waltham, Massachusetts, 1969, 3
> volumes), volume 2, pp. 2, 17, 19.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Cecil Roth
> "The Jews of the Joden Savanne [Surinam] were also
> foremost in the suppression of the successive negro
> revolts, from 1690 to 1722: these as a matter of fact were
> largely directed against them, as being the greatest
> slave-holders of the region." History of the Marranos
> (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America,
> 1932), p. 292.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Jacob Rader Marcus
> "All through the eighteenth century, into the early
> nineteenth, Jews in the North were to own black servants;
> in the South, the few plantations owned by Jews were
> tilled with slave labor. In 1820, over 75 percent of all
> Jewish families in Charleston, Richmond, and Savannah
> owned slaves, employed as domestic servants; almost 40
> percent of all Jewish householders in the United States
> owned one slave or more. There were no protests against
> slavery as such by Jews in the South, where they were
> always outnumbered at least 100 to 1....But very few Jews
> anywhere in the United States protested against chattel
> slavery on moral grounds." United States Jewry, 1776-1985
> (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989), p. 586.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Jacob Rader Marcus
> Marcus describes the mockery of the Indian by Hyam Myer's
> "Wild West Show" in his book, The Colonial American Jew:
> "[Myer sought] formal permission to exhibit some Mohawks
> in Europe. Myers sailed with the Indians before the proper
> certificate was forthcoming from the Indian Commissioner,
> and had already begun to parade them in Holland and in the
> taverns of London when the Lords of Trade urged
> Lieutenant-Governor Cadwallader Colden in New York to have
> Johnson put an end to the undertaking. From all
> indications Myers made no money on his grand European
> tour, for he ended up owing the Indians money - or
> refusing to pay them. Then, as now, there was "no business
> like show business!"
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Isaac Mayer Wise, the leader of the American Reform Jews,
> wrote of the California Indians:
> "...though not total savages, [they] are very primitive
> and ignorant....[They do] nothing besides loafing and
> begging....They catch trout in the river, and then sell
> them to buy ammunition, shoot rabbits, birds, eat various
> roots and wild plants, also snakes, frogs, dogs, cats, and
> rats, and say, 'Me work no.' In conversation with several
> of them I found that they have no particular home and are
> heathens."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> The American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society Report of
> 1853
> "The Jews of the United States have never taken any steps
> whatever with regard to the slavery question. As citizens,
> they deem it their policy to have every one choose which
> ever side he may deem best to promote his own interests
> and the welfare of his country. They have no organization
> of an ecclesiastical body to represent their general
> views; no General Assembly, or its equivalent. The
> American Jews have two newspapers, but they do not
> interfere in any discussion which is not material to their
> religion. It cannot be said that the Jews have formed any
> denominational opinion on the subject of American
> slavery....The objects of so much mean prejudice and
> unrighteous oppression as the Jews have been for ages,
> surely they, it would seem, more than any other
> denomination, ought to be the enemies of caste, and
> friends of universal freedom."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Rabbi Bertram W. Korn
> "It would seem to be realistic to conclude that any Jew
> who could afford to own slaves and had need for their
> services would do so....Jews participated in every aspect
> and process of the exploitation of the defenseless
> blacks."
> "Jews and Negro Slavery in the Old South, 1789-1865," in
> Abraham J. Karp, The Jewish Experience in America:
> Selected Studies from the Publications of the American
> Jewish Historical Society (Waltham, Massachusetts, 1969),
> pp. 184, 189. [Dr. Korn is a rabbi, historian; A.B.,
> Cincinnati, 1939; Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of
> Religion, Cincinnati, Ordination M.H.L. 1949; Sr. rabbi,
> Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Elkins Park,
> Pennsylvania, 1949-; Chaplain, USNR, 1944-; Visiting
> professor, American Jewish History, Union College-Jewish
> Institute of Religion, New York, 1962-; Honorary Overseer
> Gratz College of Pennsylvania; visiting professor,
> American Jewish History, Dropsie University of
> Pennsylvania; 1970-; Recipient Merit Award, American
> Association for State & Local History, 1969.]
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Louis Epstein, author of Sex Laws and Customs in Judaism:
> "The female slave was a sex tool beneath the level of
> moral considerations. She was an economic good, useful, in
> addition to her menial labor, for breeding more slaves. To
> attain that purpose, the master mated her promiscuously
> according to his breeding plans. The master himself and
> his sons and other members of his household took turns
> with her for the increase of the family wealth, as well as
> for satisfaction of their extra-marital sex desires.
> Guests and neighbors too were invited to that luxury."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Seymour B. Liebman
> "They came with ships carrying African blacks to be sold
> as slaves. The traffic in slaves was a royal monopoly, and
> the Jews were often appointed as agents for the Crown in
> their sale....[They] were the largest ship chandlers in
> the entire Caribbean region, where the shipping business
> was mainly a Jewish enterprise....The ships were not only
> owned by Jews, but were manned by Jewish crews and sailed
> under the command of Jewish captains."
> New World Jewry 1493-1825: Requiem for the Forgotten
> (KTAV, New York, 1982), pp. 170, 183. [Liebman is an
> attorney; LL.B., St. Lawrence University, 1929; M.A.
> (Latin American history), Mexico City College, 1963;
> Florida chapter American Jewish Historical Society,
> 1956-58; Friends of Hebrew University, 1958-59; American
> Historical Society Contributor to scholarly journals on
> Jewish history.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Herbert I. Bloom
> "The Christian inhabitants [of Brazil] were envious
> because the Jews owned some of the best plantations in the
> river valley of Pernambuco and were among the leading
> slave-holders and slave traders in the colony."1
> "Slave trade [sic] was one of the most important Jewish
> activities here [in Surinam] as elsewhere in the
> colonies."2
> 1. , "A Study of Brazilian Jewish History 1623-1654, Based
> Chiefly Upon the Findings of the Late Samuel Oppenheim,"
> Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society,
> vol. 33 (1934), p. 63.
> 2. The Economic Activities of the Jews of Amsterdam in the
> Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Port Washington, New
> York/London: Kennikat Press, 1937), p. 159.
> [Bloom is a rabbi; B.A., Columbia University, 1923, Ph.D.,
> 1937; M.H.L., Jewish Institute of Religion, 1928, D.D.,
> 1955; rabbi, Temple Albert, Albuquerque, New Mexico,
> 1928-31. President Kingston Ministerial Association,
> 1945-46, and 1959-60; B'nai B'rith; Zionist Organization
> of America; vice-president, National Prison Chaplain
> Board, since 1962; Social Action Committee of Central
> Conference of American Rabbis, since 1947; Author: The
> Jews of Dutch Brazil, 1936; The Economic Activities of the
> Jews of Amsterdam, 1937.]
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Arnold Wiznitzer
> "The West India Company, which monopolized imports of
> slaves from Africa, sold slaves at public auctions against
> cash payment. It happened that cash was mostly in the
> hands of Jews. The buyers who appeared at the auctions
> were almost always Jews, and because of this lack of
> competitors they could buy slaves at low prices. On the
> other hand, there also was no competition in the selling
> of the slaves to the plantation owners and other buyers,
> and most of them purchased on credit payable at the next
> harvest in sugar. Profits up to 300 percent of the
> purchase value were often realized with high interest
> rates....If it happened that the date of such an auction
> fell on a Jewish holiday the auction had to be postponed.
> This occurred on Friday, October 21, 1644."
> Jews in Colonial Brazil (1960), pp. 72-3; [Note:
> Wiznitzer, Arnold Aharon, educator; Born in Austria,
> December 20, 1899; Ph.D., University of Vienna, 1920;
> Doctor of Hebrew Literature, Jewish Theological Seminary
> of America; Emeritus research professor, University of
> Judaism, Los Angeles; Contributor to historical journals
> in the United States and Brazil including the Journal of
> Jewish Social Studies and the Publications of the American
> Jewish Historical Society. Former president,
> Brazilian-Jewish Institute of Historical Research.]
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Rabbi Morris Raphall
> "[I]t remains a fact which cannot be gainsaid that in his
> own native home, and generally throughout the world, the
> unfortunate negro is indeed the meanest of slaves. Much
> had been said respecting the inferiority of his
> intellectual powers, and that no man of his race has ever
> inscribed his name on the Parthenon of human excellence,
> either mental or moral."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Jews in the South
> W.E.B. DuBois, future NAACP leader
> "The Jew is the heir of the slave-baron in Dougherty
> [Georgia]; and as we ride westward, by wide stretching
> cornfields and stubby orchards of peach and pear, we see
> on all sides within the circle of dark forest a Land of
> Canaan. Here and there are tales of projects for
> moneygetting, born in the swift days of
> Reconstruction­'improvement' companies, wine companies,
> mills and factories; nearly all failed, and the Jew fell
> heir."
> The Souls of Black Folk (1903) note: When DuBois tried to
> republish the book in 1953, he succumbed to pressure to
> replace the word "Jew" with "foreigner."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Jewish Racism
> Moses Maimonides
> The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion refers to Moses
> Maimonides as "the symbol of the pure and orthodox faith."
> His Guide to the Perplexed is considered the greatest work
> of Jewish religious philosophy, but his view of Blacks was
> Hitlerian:
> "[T]he Negroes found in the remote South, and those who
> resemble them from among them that are with us in these
> climes. The status of those is like that of irrational
> animals. To my mind they do not have the rank of men, but
> have among the beings a rank lower than the rank of man
> but higher than the rank of apes. For they have the
> external shape and lineaments of a man and a faculty of
> discernment that is superior to that of the apes."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Philadelphia Jewish weekly The Jewish Record of January
> 23, 1863:
> "We know not how to speak in the same breath of the Negro
> and the Israelite. The very names have startlingly
> opposite sounds ­ one representing all that is debased and
> inferior in the hopeless barbarity and heathenism of six
> thousand years the other, the days when Jehovah conferred
> on our fathers the glorious equality which led the Eternal
> to converse with them, and allow them to enjoy the
> communion of angels. Thus the abandoned fanatics insult
> the choice of God himself, in endeavoring to reverse the
> inferiority which he stamped on the African, to make him
> the compeer, even in bondage, of His chosen people.
> "There is no parallel between such races. Humanity from
> pole to pole would scout such a comparison. The Hebrew was
> originally free and the charter of his liberty was
> inspired by his Creator. The Negro was never free and his
> bondage in Africa was simply duplicated in a milder form
> when he was imported here....The judicious in all the
> earth agree that to proclaim the African equal to the
> surrounding races, would be a farce which would lead the
> civilized conservatism of the world to denounce the
> outrage."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Major Mordecai Manuel Noah (1785-1851)
> He was considered the most distinguished Jewish layman in
> his time. He was such a prolific proponent of slavery,
> that the first Black American periodical, The Freedom's
> Journal, was launched in response to Noah's racist
> propaganda. He actually defended slavery by calling it
> liberty:
> "There is liberty under the name of slavery. A field negro
> has his cottage, his wife, and children, his easy task,
> his little patch of corn and potatoes, his garden and
> fruit, which are his revenue and property. The house
> servant has handsome clothing, his luxurious meals, his
> admitted privacy, a kind master, and an indulgent and
> frequently fond mistress."
> He argued that "the bonds of society must be kept as they
> now are" and that "To emancipate the slaves would be to
> jeopardize the safety of the whole country." The Freedom's
> Journal called Noah the Black man's "bitterest enemy" and
> William Lloyd Garrison, the leading White abolitionist,
> called him the "lineal descendant of the monsters who
> nailed Jesus to the cross."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Jews and Hollywood
> Anti-Defamation League Charter
> "For a number of years a tendency has manifested itself in
> American life toward the caricaturing and defaming of Jews
> on the stage, in moving pictures. The effect of this on
> the unthinking public has been to create an untrue and
> injurious impression of an entire people and to expose the
> Jew to undeserved contempt, and ridicule. The caricatures
> center around some idiosyncrasy of the few which, by the
> thoughtless public, is often taken as a pivotal
> characteristic of the entire people..."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Neal Gabler
> Author of An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews invented
> Hollywood
> "What is amazing is the extent to which they succeeded in
> promulgating this fiction throughout the world. By making
> a "shadow" America, one which idealized every old
> glorifying bromide about the country, the Hollywood Jews
> created a powerful cluster of images and ideas-so powerful
> that, in a sense, they colonized the American imagination.
> . . . Ultimately, American values came to be defined
> largely by the movies the Jews made."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Lester D. Friedman
> Author of Hollywood's Image of the Jew
> "Today, most people associate the blackface tradition with
> minstrel shows, and more particularly with Al Jolson. In
> actuality, many Jewish performers gained early and
> continued success using it. Sophie Tucker was billed as
> the 'World Renowned Coon Shouter' or more euphemistically
> as the 'Manipulator of Coon Melodies.' Eddie Cantor played
> Salome in drag and blackface, while George Burns often
> toured with an even more comically stylized blackface than
> Jolson's. Later George Jessel often joined Eddie Cantor on
> stage in various blackface routines...Indeed, it is too
> easy to ignore the derogatory aspects of such activities,
> the unconscious racism accepted and nourished by such
> cruel parodies, by citing historical contexts. The
> undisguised elements of ridicule in such blackface
> portrayals by Jews mimicking the outlandish stereotypes of
> blacks now looks suspiciously like one group's desperate
> need to assert its own superiority by mimicking another.
> Such a motivation while perhaps unconscious is nonetheless
> hard to ignore."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Rob Reiner, Film Director 1992
> "It's all run by Jews, even Disney. That's funny, because
> Walt Disney was a terrible reactionary. If he found out
> that Jeffrey Katzenberg were running his company, he'd be
> spinning in his grave. That's a wonderful bit of poetic
> justice."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Other Issues
> B'nai B'rith Magazine, May, 1925, vol. 39 :
> Darktown
> Rastus: Whuffo' yo' 'jeculate yoself to me in dat onery
> manner?
> Cicero: Whoffo'? Nigguh, who do yo' calkerate yo' is?
> Rastus: Yo' nigguh! mah family am quality folks an' ahm a
> pusson of rank.
> Cicero: Huh! ah'll have yo' triflin', Rastus, to know that
> ah'm ranker than you is.
> "Jokes" like these appeared regularly in the B'nai B'rith
> Magazine even as the ADL fought this kind of defamation of
> Jews.
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Andrew Goodman
> " is true that the white man (and by this I mean
> Christian civilization in general) has proved himself to
> be the most depraved devil imaginable in his attitudes
> towards the Negro race....The source and cause of this
> need for reaction can be attributed to white contempt and
> neglect. The historical contempt that the white race held
> for the Negroes has created a group of rootless degraded
> people. The current neglect of the problem can only
> irritate this deplorable state of affairs. The Black
> Muslims should constitute a warning to our society, a
> warning that must be heeded if we are to preserve the
> society. The road to freedom must be uphill, even if it is
> arduous and frustrating. A people must have dignity and
> identity. If they can't do it peacefully, they will do it
> defensively."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Elie Weisel, Hate Teacher
> "There is a time to love and a time to hate; whoever does
> not hate when he should does not deserve to love when he
> should, does not deserve to love when he is able. Perhaps,
> had we learned to hate more during the years of ordeal,
> fate itself would have taken fright. The Germans did their
> best to teach us, but we were poor pupils in the
> discipline of hate....Every Jew, somewhere in his being,
> should set apart a zone of hate - healthy, virile hate -
> for what the German personifies and for what persists in
> the German. To do otherwise would be a betrayal of the
> dead." Legends of Our Time (1968), pp.177-78:
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Compare and contrast with...
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Adolf Hitler
> Hitler HATED Black people. His comments are included here
> to compare to the many Jewish notables discussed here.
> Here is a sampling of Adolf Hitler's beliefs about the
> Black African:
> "It does not dawn upon this depraved bourgeois world that
> here one has actually to do with a sin against all reason;
> that it is a criminal absurdity to train a born half-ape
> until one believes a lawyer has been made of him, while
> millions of members of the highest culture race have to
> remain in entirely unworthy positions; that it is a sin
> against the will of the eternal Creator to let hundreds
> and hundreds of thousands of His most talented beings
> degenerate in the proletarian swamp of today, while
> Hottentots and Zulu Kafirs are trained for intellectual
> vocations. For it is training, exactly as that of the
> poodle, and not a scientific 'education'."
> "In the most critical hour of our people, in the moment
> when we, practically abandoned by all the world, made
> defenseless by our own fault, have to watch France setting
> out to occupy new territories, while African negroes rape
> our women and children,..."
> "The black disgrace works havoc on the Rhine. Women, girls
> and children pay for the bestial negroes' lust with their
> death. An uninterrupted stream of poison and disease flows
> into the blood of our people. Moroccan syphilis drives
> thousands of victims towards a cruel death..."
> "All great cultures of the past perished only because the
> originally creative race died off through blood
> poisoning."
> "...and one seeks compensation by success with Hottentots
> and Zulu Kafirs, with the blessing of the Church. While
> our European peoples, the Lord be praised and thanked,
> fall into a state of physical and moral leprosy, the pious
> missionary wanders to Central Africa and establishes negro
> missions, till there our 'higher culture' will have turned
> healthy, though primitive and inferior, human children
> into a foul breed of bastards."
> "What we see before us of human culture today, the results
> of art, science, and techniques, is almost exclusively the
> creative produce of the Aryan....Without this possibility
> of utilizing inferior men, the Aryan would never have been
> able to take the first steps towards his later culture;
> exactly as, without the help of various suitable animals
> which he knew how to tame, he would never have arrived at
> a technology which now allows him to do without these very
> animals. The words 'Der Mohr hat seine Schuldigkeit getan,
> er kann gehen' (The Moor has done his duty, he may go) has
> [sic] unfortunately too deep a meaning."
> ----------------------------------------------------------
> Robert A. Rockaway, is a senior lecturer in the Department
> of Jewish History at Tel Aviv University.
> "After the first World War, Jewish Gangsters became major
> figures in the American underworld and played prominent
> roles in the creation and extension of organized crime in
> the United States. During Prohibition fifty percent of the
> leading bootleggers were Jews, and Jewish criminals
> financed and directed much of the nations narcotics
> traffic. Jews also dominated illicit activities in a
> number of America's largest cities, including Boston,
> Cleveland, Detroit, Minneapolis, New York, and
> Philadelphia."
> ----------------------------------------------------------



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