Subj: The full letter
Date: 12/14/98 12:13:36 PM Eastern Standard Time
From: twaecap@home.com (Edward Toner)
To: deirdret@interworld.com (Deirdre Toner), eamonnt@aol.com (Eamonn Toner), alowry0521@aol.com (George & Andree Lowry), itebivins@aol.com (Hank Bivins), hankflew@aol.com (Hank Gastrich), nwg@eclipse.net (Jerry Weiner), newsocit2m@aol.com (John Bryant), jlkucek@juno.com (John Kucek), kevintoner@aol.com (Kevin Toner), litoner@aol.com (Lisa Toner), mistyglynn@aol.com (Misty Glynn), otten@aol.com (Pastor Otten), prford@aol.com (Peter Roy), rbecker763@aol.com (Robert Becker), njtoners@webtv.net (Tim Toner)

29 Nov. 1998
Dear Editor, Richmond Times Dispatch;

I read with interest the several letters concerning slavery, but was
disappointed in not finding any
mention of free blacks who owned slaves. This subject was mentioned in
AMERICAN
HERITAGE, Feb./Mar. 1993 (vol. 441) under the title Selling Poor Steven
beginning on page
90. Citing the official US Census of 1830, there were 3,775 free blacks
who owned 12,740 black
slaves. Furthermore, the story outlines the history of slavery here, and
the first slave owner, the
Father of American Slavery, was Mr. Anthony Johnson, of Northampton VA.
His slave was
John Casor, the first slave for life. Both were black Africans. This is
part of Virginia's history that
deserves attention.

The story is very readable, and outlines cases of free black women
owning their husbands, free
black parents selling their children into slavery to white owners, and
absentee free black slave
owners, who leased their slaves to plantation owner, among other things.
Most libraries carry back
issues of American Heritage.

Another interesting book on the same subject is Free Negro Owners of
Slaves in the United
States in 1830, by the noted black historian, Carter G. Woodson. This
book lists the names and
address of free blacks who owned slaves. Among them is one George C.
Washington of
Washington DC.

For publication,
Edward J. Toner Jr
481B Jason Pl.
Brick NJ 08724
(723) 840-4203



LCDR USN (RET.)


----------------------- Headers --------------------------------
Return-Path:
Received: from rly-zc01.mx.aol.com (rly-zc01.mail.aol.com [172.31.33.1]) by air-zc01.mail.aol.com (v53.20) with SMTP; Mon, 14 Dec 1998 12:13:35 -0500
Received: from mail.rdc1.nj.home.com (ha1.rdc1.nj.home.com [24.3.128.66])
by rly-zc01.mx.aol.com (8.8.8/8.8.5/AOL-4.0.0)
with ESMTP id MAA19498;
Mon, 14 Dec 1998 12:12:58 -0500 (EST)
Received: from home.com ([24.3.158.192]) by mail.rdc1.nj.home.com
(InterMail v4.0 201-221-107) with ESMTP
id <19981214171258.JUEU11948.mail.rdc1.nj.home.com@home.com>;
Mon, 14 Dec 1998 09:12:58 -0800
Message-ID: <36754807.C5876787@home.com>
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 1998 12:16:55 -0500
From: Edward Toner
Organization: @Home Network
X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.05 [en]C-AtHome0404 (Win95; U)
MIME-Version: 1.0
To: Deirdre Toner , Eamonn Toner ,
George & Andree Lowry ,
Hank Bivins , Hank Gastrich ,
Jerry Weiner , John Bryant ,
John Kucek , Kevin Toner ,
Lisa Toner , Misty Glynn ,
Pastor Otten , Peter Roy ,
Robert Becker , Tim Toner
Subject: The full letter
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit