FRANCO, FRANCISCO. 20th century Spanish statesman. In his victory speech in Madrid, on May 19, 1939, he declared: "Let us be under no illusion. The Jewish spirit, which was responsible for the alliance of large-scale capital with Marxism and was the driving force behind so many anti-Spanish revolutionary agreements, will not be got rid of in a day."

PRIMO DE RIVERA, JOSE. 20th century Spanish political reformer (assassinated by the Communists). He stressed that the instruments of Jewish domination in the modern world are money and the press, and that communism is an instrument of international Jewish capitalism used to smash and afterwards rule the nations. (El Estado Nacional)

H. H. BEAMISH, in a New York address, October 30 - November 1, 1937 "In 1848 the word "anti-Semitic" was invented by the Jews to prevent the use of the word "Jew." The right word for them is "Jew" . . . "I implore all of you to be accurate -- call them Jews. There is no need to be delicate on this Jewish question. You must face them in this country. The Jew should be satisfied here. I was here forty-seven years ago; your doors were thrown open to the Jews and they were free. No he has got you absolutely by the throat -- that is your reward."

CHRISTEA, PATRIARCH. 20th century Romanian prelate. "The Jews have caused an epidemic of corruption and social unrest. They monopolize the press, which, with foreign help, flays all the spiritual treasures of the Romanians. To defend ourselves is a national and patriotic duty -- not anti-Semitism. Lack of measures to get rid of the plague would indicate that we are lazy cowards who let ourselves be carried alive to our graves. Why should we not get rid of these parasites who suck Romanian and Christian blood? It is logical and holy to react against them." (New York Herald Tribune, August 17, 1937)

HOUSTON STEWART CHAMBERLAIN, world famed author of Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, Vol. I, page 337 "The revelation of Christ has no significance for the Jew! . . . I have searched through a whole library of Jewish books in the expectation of finding -- naturally not belief in the Divinity of Christ, nor the idea of redemption, but the purely human feeling for the greatness of the suffering Savior -- but in vain. A Jew who feels that, is, in fact, no longer a Jew, but a denier of Judaism. And while we find, even in Mohammed's Koran, at least a vague conception of the importance of Christ and profound reverence for His personality, a cultured leading Jew of the nineteenth century (Graetz) calls Christ "the new birth with the death mask," which inflicted new and painful wounds upon the Jewish people; he cannot see anything else in Him. In view of the Cross he assures us that "the Jews do not require this convulsive emotion for their spiritual improvement," and adds, "particularly not among the middle classes of inhabitants of the cities." His comprehension goes further. In a book, republished in 1880, by a Spanish Jew (Mose de Leon) Jesus Christ is called a "dead dog" that lies "buried in a dunghill." Besides, the Jews have taken care to issue in the latter part of the nineteenth century several editions (naturally in Hebrew) of the so-called "censured passages" from the Talmud, those passages usually omitted in which Christ is exposed to our scorn and hatred as a "fool," "sorcerer," "profane person," "idolater," "dog," "bastard," "child of lust," etc.: so, too, His sublime Mother."

ADRIEN ARCAND, Canadian political leader of the 1930s "Through their (Jew's) international news agencies, they mold your minds and have you see the world not as it is, but as they want you to see it. Through their cinema, they are the educators of our youth -- and with just one film in two hours, can wipe out of a child's brain what he has learned in six months in the home, the church or the school."

NESTA WEBSTER, in her book Germany and England "England is no longer controlled by Britons. We are under the invisible Jewish dictatorship -- a dictatorship that can be felt in every sphere of life."

HENRY WALLACE, Secretary of Commerce, under President Harry Truman, wrote in his dairy that in 1946 "Truman was "exasperated" over Jewish pressure that he support Zionist rule over Palestine. Wallace added "Pres. Truman expressed himself as being very much 'put out' with the Jews. He said that 'Jesus Christ couldn't please them when he was here on Earth, so how could anyone expect that I would have any luck?' Pres. Truman said he had no use for them and didn't care what happened to them."

WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYANT, three times the Democratic Party candidate for President said: "New York is the city of privilege. Here is the seat of the Invisible Power represented by the allied forces of finance and industry. This Invisible Government is reactionary, sinister, unscrupulous, mercenary, and sordid. It is wanting in national ideals and devoid of conscience . . . This kind of government must be scourged and destroyed."

HENRY ADAMS (Descendant of President John Adams), in a letter to John Hay, October 1895 "The Jewish question is really the most serious of our problems."

SPRING-RICE, SIR CECIL. 20th century British politician. "One by one, the Jews are capturing the principal newspapers of America. (Letter of November 1914, to Sir Edward Grey, foreign secretary. Letters and Friendships)

CAPOTE, TRUMAN. 20th century American writer. In an interview, he assailed "the Zionist mafia" monopolizing publishing today, and protested a tendency to suppress things that do not meet with Jewish approval. (Playboy magazine, March 1968)

VOLTAIRE (Francois Marie Arouet) 18th century French philosopher, writer. "Why are the Jews hated? It is the inevitable result of their laws; they either have to conquer everybody or be hated by the whole human race . . ." "The Jewish nation dares to display an irreconcilable hatred toward all nations, and revolts against all masters; always superstitious, always greedy for the well-being enjoyed by others, always barbarous -- cringing in misfortune and insolent in prosperity." (Essai sur le Moeurs)

"You seem to me to be the maddest of the lot. The Kaffirs, the Hottentots, and the Negroes of Guinea are much more reasonable and more honest people than your ancestors, the Jews. You have surpassed all nations in impertinent fables in bad conduct and in barbarism. You deserve to be punished, for this is your destiny." (From a letter to a Jew who had written to him, complaining of his 'anti-Semitism.' Examen des Quelques Objections . . . dans L'Essai sur le Moeurs.)

"You will only find in the Jews an ignorant and barbarous people, who for a long time have joined the most sordid avarice to the most detestable superstition and to the most invincible hatred of all peoples which tolerate and enrich them." ("Juif," Dictionnaire Philosophique)

"I know that there are some Jews in the English colonies. These marranos go wherever there is money to be made . . . But whether these circumcised who sell old clothes claim that they are of the tribe of Naphtali or Issachar is not of the slightest importance. They are, simply, the biggest scoundrels who have ever dirtied the face of the earth." (Letter to Jean-Baptiste Nicolas de Lisle de Sales, December 15, 1773. Correspondence. 86:166)

"They are, all of them, born with raging fanaticism in their hearts, just as the Bretons and the Germans are born with blond hair. I would not be in the least bit surprised if these people would not some day become deadly to the human race." (Lettres de Memmius a Ciceron, 1771)

CANNOT, E. 19th century French reformer. In La Renovation, journal of the socialist school of CHARLES FOURIER. "Jews! To the heights of your Sinai . . . I humbly lift myself. I stand erect and cry out to you, in behalf of all my humble equals, of all those whom your spoliation has brought to grief, who died in misery through you and whose trembling shades accuse you: Jews! for Cain and Iscariot, leave us, leave us! Ah, cross the Red Sea again, and go down there to the desert, to the promised land which is waiting for you, the only country fit for you; o you wicked, rude and dishonest people, go there!!!" repute.htm
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Old 05-15-2008, 07:10 AM   #52
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Again, quotes which are hidden away from the public gaze and have no effect.Smilie

Also, all your quotes are related to morality or scruples, not to intelligence.
A man's only as old as the woman he feels.--Groucho Marx
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Old 05-15-2008, 07:13 AM   #53
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Originally Posted by Cosssack View Post
Voltaire and Franklin are stating the facts. They are not trying to be effective or not effective. Just wait when Christianity ( moral standards of wrong and right) disappears from lives of majority of Goyim, just wait. With all their effectiveness you will not find even a single jew alive , you will not find even their ashes . Just wait
You think Christianity is alive now? Smilie
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Old 05-15-2008, 07:29 AM   #54
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Was George Washington an anti-semite?

They work more effectively against us than the enermy's armies. They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in. It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago has not hunted them down as pests to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America -- The Jews.

Actually, old GW never said any such thing. What Washington actually wrote, regarding currency speculators who sought to profit by taking advantage of soldiers and others during the Revolutionary War, was this:

This tribe of black gentry work more effectually against us, than the enermy's arms. They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties, and the great cause we are engaged in. It is much to be lamented that each State, long ere this, has not hunted them down as pests to society, and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America.

He did, however, pen the following in response to a goodwill address from a Newport synagogue:

May the Children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.

Great Jewish Achievers

Hey Nero how come ya not here
Famous Jews You Didn't Know Are Jewish
1. Lillian Friedman married Cruz Rivera. They named their baby Geraldo
Miguel Rivera.( Funny, it doesn't sound Jewish....) Since, according to
Jewish law, anyone born to a Jewish mother is Jewish, Geraldo Rivera is Jewish. As were, among others: Fiorella Laguardia, Winston Churchill and Cary Grant, as explained below.

2. Fiorella Laguardia's mother's name was Jacobson. His father was not Jewish. Laguardia spoke seven languages - including Hebrew and Yiddish - fluently.

3. Winston Churchill's mother's name was Jenny Jerome.

4. Cary Grant's mother, Elsie, was Jewish. His father, Elias Leach, was not. Grant's original name was Archibald Alexander Leach. (Robin Leach is his first cousin).

5. Peter Sellers' mother, Margaret Marks, was Jewish. His father, Bill Sellers, was Protestant. Peter's real name is Richard Henry Sellers.

6. David Bowie's mother is Jewish, his father is not. One of Bowie 's album covers discusses his Jewish ancestry. His real name: David Stenton Haywood-Jones.

7. Robert DeNiro's mother is Jewish; his father is not.

8. Shari Belafonte's mother is Jewish. Her father, Harry, has a Jewish grandfather.

9. Olivia Newton-John's Jewish grandfather was a Nobel Prize winning

10. Harrison Ford's mother is Russian-Jewish, his father is Irish-Catholic.


Fact: The first theatre to be used solely for the showing of motion pictures was built by a Jew (Adolf Zukor).

Fact: The first full-length sound picture, The Jazz Singer was produced by the Jewish Samuel L. Goldwyn & Louis B. Mayer (MGM).

Fact: A Jew (Dr. Abraham Waksman) coined the term antibiotics.

Fact: A Polish Jew (Casimir Funk) who pioneered a new field of medical research gave us a word now common in our language - vitamins.

Fact: The first successful operation for appendicitis was performed by a Jewish surgeon (Dr. Simon Baruch)

Fact: The doctor (Dr. Abraham Jacobi) hailed as America 's father of
pediatrics was a Jew.

Fact: Until a Jewish doctor (Dr. Siccary) showed differently, Americans believed the tomato was poisonous.

Fact: Jewish Levi "Levi's" Strauss (inventor of jeans) is the largest
clothing retailer in the world.

Fact: In 1909, four Jews were among the 60 multi-cultural signers of the call to the National Action, which resulted in the creation of the NAACP.

Fact: A Jew (Emile Berliner) is the man who developed the modern-day phonograph. While Thomas Edison was working out a type of phonograph that used a cylinder as a record, Berliner invented a machine that would play a disc. The machine he patented was called the gramophone, and the famous RCA trademark is a picture of a dog listening to "his master's voice" on Berliner's device. The gramaphone was superior to Edison 's machine. In short, Emile Berliner made possible the modern record industry. His company was eventually absorbed by the Victor Talking Machine Company, now known as

Fact: Jewish Louis B. Mayer (MGM) created the idea for the Oscar.

Fact: European Jews are the founding fathers of all the Hollywood Studios.

Fact: Jews comprise a mere 1/4 of 1% (13 million) of the population (6 billion).

Fact: 99% of the world is non Jewish.

Fact: Three of greatest & most influential thinkers dominating the 20th century were Jewish - Einstein, Freud, Marx.

Fact: The most popular selling Christmas song ("White Christmas") was written by a Jew (Irving Berlin)

Fact: Of the 660 Nobel prizes from 1901-1990, 160 have been won by Jews. In the end, Jews win more Nobel prizes than any other ethnicity. They win 40x more than should be expected of them, based upon their small population numbers.

Fact: A Jew (Dr. Jonas Salk) is the creator of the first Polio Vaccine.

Fact: Jews (Hayam Solomon & Isaac Moses) are responsible for creating the first modern-banking institutions.

Fact: Jews also created the first department stores of the 19th century: The Altmans, Gimbels, Kaufmanns, Lazaruses, Magnins, Mays, Strausses became leaders of major department stores. Julius Rosenwald revolutionized the way Americans purchased goods by improving Sears Roebuck's mail order merchandising. Hart, Schaffner, Marx, Kuppenheimer and Levi Strauss became household names in mens' clothing. (Let's not forget EJ Korvets - Eight Jewish Korean (war) Veterans.)

Fact: Jewish Marc Chagall (born Segal , Russia ) is one of the great 20th century painters.

Fact: English-Jewish financiers such as Isaac Goldsmid, Nathan Rothschild, David Salomons, and Moses Montefiore, whose fortunes helped England become an empire.

Fact: In 1918, Detroit , a Jew (Max Goldberg) opened the "first" commercial parking lot.

Fact: In 1910, a Jew (Louis Blaustein) and his son opened the "first" gas station, eventually founding AMOCO OIL. One of the richest oil families in the world.

Fact: A Jew (Dr. Albert Sabin) developed the first "oral polio vaccine."

Fact: A Jew (Steven Spielberg) is the most successful filmmaker since the advent of film.

Fact: A Jewish poet's (Emma Lazarus) famous poem, "give me your tired .... your poor... your huddled masses," appears as the inscription on the Statue Of Liberty.

Fact: Jewish Harry Houdini (Weiss) is the father of Magic/Illusion.

Fact: Dr. Sigmund Freud (Jew) is the father of psychiatry.

Fact: Jewish Abraham is the father of the world's 3 major religions:
Judaism, Christianity & Islam (ancestors of the Hebrew & Arabic peoples). Jesus (formerly known as "sweet Jewish Jesus") is still worshipped by billions.

Fact: Jews are the oldest of any people on earth still around with their national identity and cultural heritage intact.

Fact: George & Ira Gershwin & Irving Berlin (Jews) are three of the most prolific composers of the 20th century

Fact: Isadore & Nathan Straus (Jews) - "Abraham & Straus," eventually became sole owners of Macy's (world's largest department store) in 1896.

Fact: Dr. Paul "magic bullet" Ehrlich (Jew) - physician, Nobel Prize in 1908 for curing syphilis.

Fact: Armand Hammer (Jew) - "Arm & Hammer," physician & businessman who originated the largest trade between U.S. and Russia.

Fact: Louis Santanel (Jew) was the financier who provided the funds for Columbus ' voyage to America .

Fact: Sherry Lansing (Jew) of Paramount Pictures, became the first woman president of a major Hollywood studio.

Fact: Flo Zigfield (Jew) of "Zigfield Follies," is the creator of American

So, my family and friends, stand tall and be proud. (or at least stand up and be counted!!)

Jewish logic

Zionist logic?
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Old 05-15-2008, 07:38 AM   #55
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I bet the word 'FACT' was jewish invention.

Why do Jews hate Jews
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Old 05-15-2008, 07:46 AM   #56
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Originally Posted by Agnostic View Post
You think Christianity is alive now? Smilie

yes, it is .....

Vlad the Bad & Dmitry the Gitry TagTeam Is Here.
TO RUSSOPHOBIC WEST: when the shit hits the fan it AIN'T gonna be a pretty picture. Be afraid, be very afraid!
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Old 05-15-2008, 08:31 AM   #57
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Why do Indians hate us so much

Agnostic dont tell me that Indians do not hateSmilie

Nathan Katz and Ellen S. Goldberg

End of the Indian Diaspora / Jews of Cochin / The Bene Israel / Mughal Courtiers / Portuguese Marranos / Baghdadi Jews / Jews in Burma / India's Ashkenazim / Tribal Jews / Issues Facing Indian Jewry Today

The End of the Indian Diaspora

One Shabbat in July 1987, for the first time since the synagogue was built 419 years ago, there was no minyan in the fabled Paradesi Synagogue of Cochin. Since the beginning of 1987, the population of Jew Town, once about 300, has diminished from 33 to 29 due to immigration to Israel. Similar forlorn scenarios are being repeated throughout India.

The one remaining Jewish family in North Parur, Kerala, bravely keeps the synagogue's ner tamid (eternal light) burning and gathers each Shabbat for informal prayers. In Puna's best known landmark, the Ohel David Synagogue built by David Sassoon, the Sefer Torah is no longer read for lack of a hazan. In "the grandest synagogue in the East," the Maghen David of Calcutta, a few old Jews of Baghdadi extraction gather weekly; sometimes there is a minyan, sometimes not. The roof leaks badly at Bombay's Maghen David and there is no one to see to its repair. Only two Sifrei Torah remain in Rangoon's Musmeah Yeshua Synagogue where there were once 126 scrolls.

Of the more than 25,000 Jews in India at independence, perhaps 5-6,000 remain, and many of them are highly assimilated Bene Israel in Bombay. Jewish life has become all but impossible. The vast community matza bakeries of Bombay and Calcutta have been all but silenced. The glorious Jewish community of Cochin has now been reduced to a few old homes along Synagogue Lane, and many of the unique observances of the Cochinis can no longer be continued. The Director of the Bombay office of the Jewish Agency lives in Israel; there is not enough for him to do in India to warrant full-time residence.

In this exotic corner of the diaspora, a realm in which Jews lived for millennia in freedom and dignity, bathed in the affection of their Hindu brethren, India was the most hospitable of homes, a nation which has been host for six distinct Jewish communities: the ancient and celebrated Cochinim, the once-forgotten Bene Israel, the courtiers of the Mughal emperors, Portuguese Marranos, the commercially and industrially prominent Baghdadis, the scattered Ashkenazim, and today's tribal Jews of the far northeast.

The Jews of Cochin

The oldest Indian Jewish community is in the southwesternmost state, Kerala, centered in the quaint port city of Cochin. They have been in India for at least 1,000 years; medieval Muslim and Jewish travelers wrote of their high status and favor of the Maharajahs. More likely, they have been there nearly 2,000 years, perhaps from the destruction of the Second Temple as their tradition holds. The third-century Bishop of Caesaria, Eusebius, wrote of an Aramaic copy of the Gospel of St. Matthew which had been seen in India a hundred years before him. The earliest settlements may even have dated from King Solomon's time, since such luxury items as ivory, peacocks and linen were imported from India during his reign.

At the time of independence, there were seven active synagogues in the princely State of Cochin and one in the State of Travancore: three in Cochin, two in Ernakulam, and one each in Parur, Chendamangalam and Mala.

Today there is a regular minyan only in the Paradesi Synagogue of Cochin. The 1568 synagogue, the oldest in the British Commonwealth, is beautifully maintained, even if the community's cemetery has deteriorated. Plans have been made for the Archaeological Survey of India to convert the synagogue into a museum when the remaining few Jews have gone. The Thekumbagam Synagogue (1647), about 100 meters south along Synagogue Lane, was demolished in the early 1970s, and the Kadavumbagam (1539), several hundred meters farther south, is a warehouse.

Ernakulam now has three Jewish families -- the Eliases, Nehemias and Abrahams -- about 20 people all told; there were once about 1,000. The Kadavumbagam Synagogue (1200) is in reasonably good repair. It was closed in 1972 and is now a flower nursery; its spirit lives on at Moshav Nevatim, near Beersheba, where its Sifrei Torah -- including one with a solid gold case -- have been installed. The Thekumbagam Synagogue (1580) is a Jewish-owned poultry farm.

The Simon family clings tenaciously to its beloved synagogue (originally built in 1164, rebuilt in 1616) in the town of North Parur, where once around 1,000 Jews lived. Esther Simon tends the ner tamid in the dilapidated building, and the family recites prayers there each Shabbat. For Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, relatives from nearby Alwaye join them and form a minyan. Said Esther Simon, matriarch of the family, "We have only three things now: the house, this synagogue and the cemetery. It's very difficult to live here now."

The nearby towns of Mala and Chendamangalam have no Jews left; both synagogues are terribly run down. The Mala Synagogue (1597) was donated to the town council of elders for use as a community center by the Jewish community when they moved to Israel en masse in 1952. In Chendamangalam, the 1614 synagogue stands empty, its magnificent carved, wooden ark -- an unsurpassed example of Kerala Jewish art -- silently decaying, its prayer books strewn about, and a fine parchment Torah scroll awaiting rescue from oblivion.

Sattu Koder is the scholarly, octogenerian leader of the community and President of the South India Jewish Association. The 29 Jews of the Paradesi community and perhaps another 30 scattered throughout Kerala are all that remain of the 2,500 prior to mass aliya.

The Bene Israel

Second in antiquity but by far the largest community is the Bene Israel of Bombay and environs. These were the most "Hinduized" of India's Jews. Cut off from world Jewry for centuries, they forgot their Hebrew -- except for the Shema -- and adopted such Hindu practices as abstention from meat-eating and banning widow remarriage. They did not recognize the term "Jew" and formed the shanwar teli or "Saturday oil-presser" caste, so-called because of their abjuring work on Shabbat. They held firmly to the vestiges of Jewish observance, however, and practiced circumcision on the eighth day, kept kashrut and celebrated most Jewish festivals in dimly-remembered forms for uncounted and uncountable centuries.

As Bombay grew into a major industrial and commercial center during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many Bene Israel moved there from the neighboring countryside of the Konkan coast. With a tradition of military and government service, they settled in such diverse cities as Puna, the monsoon capital of the old Bombay Presidency; Ahmedabad, India's second leading textile center in Gujerat state; Karachi, the Sindh's leading seaport, now in Pakistan; Delhi, the capital since 1912; Calcutta, the old capital and home to thousands of Baghdadi Jewish industrialists and traders; and Rangoon, a major seaport, now capital of Burma. In each of these cities, they built synagogues and have left a distinguished mark of service to Indian society.

Before aliya to Israel, there were 20,000 Bene Israel in India; now there are 4-5,000, mostly in Bombay, with communities in Puna, Ahmedabad, and New Delhi, and individuals scattered throughout India.

Jewish life in Bombay is rooted in its synagogues: Shaar ha-Rahamim (1796); Shaare Rason (1840); Tifereth Israel (1886); Etz Haeem Prayer Hall (1888); Maghen Hassidim (1904); Kurla Bene Israel Prayer Hall (1946); and India's only Reform congregation, Rodef Shalom (1925). Nearby is Shaar Hashamaim in Thane (1879). Around the Konkan region are Maghen Aboth in Alibag (1842); Beth El in Panvel (1849); and Beth Ha-Elohim in Pen (1863).

There is a proliferation of Jewish organizations in Bombay -- on paper at least. Most really do not function. For example, the Jewish Club does little more than sponsor card games for its largely non-Jewish membership. However, ORT maintains schools for 125 boys in Mazagaon and 80 girls in Worli, and its energetic young director, Ralph Jhirad, makes it a community focal point. The unofficial spokespersons for the community include Professor Nissim Ezekiel, the celebrated poet; Moses Sultoon, trustee of the Sassoon Trusts; Sophy Kelly, headmistress of the Hill Grange School; I.S. Abraham, senior Times of India writer; and attorney Shellim Samuel. The Consulate of Israel is also present.

Puna is the most active of the satellite Bene Israel communities. We do not know the origin of the settlement; Bene Israel were soldiers for the Puna-based armies of Shivaji, the great Maratha leader of the seventeenth century. The first known Bene Israel of Puna was Subedar Abraham David Charikar, who was appointed Superintendent of Police in 1863. A prayer hall was established fifteen years later, and the Succath Shelomo Synagogue was built in 1921. With about 150 members, the synagogue is active, especially on Friday nights, and a warm Jewish spirit fills the modest building. The community has an active Jewish Welfare Association (founded 1971), a small Jewish library, a Puna Jewish Youth Group and a modest newsletter, Mikhtav Shelanu. Hebrew and Jewish education is offered at the synagogue's Sunday school, the teacher being Professor S.B. David of the biology department of Puna University. There is an old Jewish neighborhood near the synagogue, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth, but community members who can afford it prefer more spacious homes scattered throughout the expansive city. Despite the demise of the traditional Jewish neighborhood, the Puna community remains cohesive and active.
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Ahmedabad, in Gujerat state, is India's second textile city, located to the north of Bombay. It, too, attracted Bene Israel civil servants, military personnel, railway workers and traders as early as 1848 when Dr. Abraham Benjamin Erulkar, who had been assigned to the government hospital, settled there with his family, converting his home into a prayer hall in 1850. The community built the art deco-style Maghen Abraham Synagogue in 1934. Located opposite a Zoroastrian temple in a poor, Muslim section of town, the synagogue is architecturally striking but neglected. Prayer services are held twice on Shabbat and on festivals. Once numbering more than 2,000, the 300 Jews who remain in Ahmedabad are spread around the city. many are involved in education, especially much sought-after English medium education. According to R.M. Best, headmaster of the Best Schools, the preeminence of Jewish-run schools in Ahmedabad emerged since Indian independence and was part of the general trend towards indigenization of Indian institutions. Prior to independence, English-medium education was firmly in Christian missionary hands. Whether run by foreigners or Indians, Christian missions have always been suspect in India as tools of foreign domination. However, many Indians were -- and are -- caught in the conflict between seeking the best education for their children and avoiding alien religious indoctrination. Jews began to move into the education field soon after independence, and Hindu, Jaina and Muslim students flocked to them. Gradually, standards at the seven Jewish-run schools of Ahmedabad matched those at the mission schools and today the missionaries have been displaced by Jews.

Early in the twentieth century, Bene Israel moved to the new British capital at New Delhi. While there had been Persian-speaking Jews in Delhi during Mughal times, and the tomb of one of them -- Sarmad, near the Juma Masjud, is a significant Muslim pilgrimage site -- there is no evidence that they overlapped the arrival of the Bene Israel. In 1956 the community built the modest Judah Hyam Prayer Hall; before that time prayers were said in a rented house in the Bara Tooti section of town. The New Delhi community has always been small, and even today a minyan is regularly obtained only with the participation of Jewish diplomats and tourists. There is an active Jewish Welfare Board and a Centre for Jewish and Inter-Faith Studies, which has published some pamphlets on Indian Judaism and holds classes in Hebrew and Jewish studies. It is also a venue for various community organizations, Jewish and non-Jewish. There are about eight Bene Israel families in New Delhi today; nevertheless, the Jewish community there is active and visible and here are services in the synagogue every Friday evening and on holy days and festivals.

Ezra Kolet, President of the Indian Council of Jewry, is the leader of the New Delhi community, the community's hazan and frequent liaison between India's Jews and the government of India. For years he has attempted to move the Indian bureaucracy to grant visas to Israeli citizens of Indian origin with a minimum of delay, a thankless task which has met with moderate success at best. A retired senior civil servant and accomplished violinist, Kolet founded the Delhi Symphony Orchestra in 1964.

Mughal Courtiers

Persian speaking Jews from Afghanistan and Iran came with the Ghaznavad, Ghori and Mughal invasions of Mahmud (11th century), Muhammad (12th century) and Babur (16th century). The most obscure of Indian Jews, they were traders and courtiers of the Mughals. Jewish advisors at the Court of Akbar the Great in Agra played a significant role in Akbar's liberal religious policies and built a synagogue there. In Delhi, one Jew was tutor to the Crown Prince, Dara Shukah; the teacher and student were later assassinated by Aurangzeb when he usurped the throne. Jews traded freely in Kashmir, the Punjab, and throughout the Mughal Empire.

Portuguese Marranos

It is likely that no one will ever know the extent to which Marranos, principally from Portugal, settled in India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but it is clear that some did, accompanying the Portuguese colonizing and trading fleets. The earliest Jewish, or at least Marrano, settlements in Bombay date from Portuguese times in the mid-sixteenth century. Unfortunately, by the very nature of their situation, they left us traces and are known to us only through scattered references.

Baghdadi Jews

Arabic-speaking Jews came to India as traders in the wake of the Portuguese, Dutch and British. These "Baghdadis," as they came to be known, especially the Sassoons of Bombay and the Ezras of Calcutta, eventually established manufacturing and commercial houses of fabulous wealth.

They first settled in Surat, in the Sindh, during the seventeenth century, where there were 95 Jewish families and a synagogue soon thereafter. However, as Bombay rose to replace Surat as west India's leading port and commercial center, Jewish attention was directed there. The Syrian Suleiman ibn Ya'qub was the first prominent Arabic-speaking Jewish businessman of the city, his activities spanning the period from 1795 to 1833. However, it was the arrival of the Baghdadi merchant, industrialist and financier David Sassoon (1792-1864) in 1833 that heralded the remarkable sojourn of the Baghdadi Jewish community of Bombay. The Sassoon family, "the Rothschilds of the East," played a major role in the industrialization of Bombay, and Jews provided the city with three of its mayors, professors in its university and producers and stars for its film industry.

During its heyday, Bombay had several Jewish newspapers (in Judeo-Arabic, Hebrew, Marathi and English), a Jewish publishing industry, Zionist and community organizations. The Sassoons built two beautiful synagogues to serve the Baghdadi community: Maghen David (1863) in Byculla and Kenesseth Eliyahu (1883) in Fort, both of which usually manage to obtain a Shabbat minyan today. By 1950 there were nearly 20,000 Jews in Bombay, but immigration to Israel, America, Britain, Australia and Canada have drastically reduced those numbers. Of the Baghdadi community, around 200 remain.

As did many upper-class Bombayites, David Sassoon established a summer home in Puna, a hill town 120 miles east which served as capital of the Bombay Presidency during the monsoon. The best-known landmark in Puna is the 90-foot tower of the red brick Ohel David Synagogue (1863), known locally as Lal Deval, "red temple." Sassoon's impressive mausoleum is found in the synagogue's courtyard. Only a handful of Baghdadis remain in Puna, mostly middle-class merchants living in the Cantonment area. The magnificent synagogue more often than not fails to attain a minyan, even on Shabbat, and no member of the community is qualified to read the Torah.

The Calcutta community was founded by Shalom Obaidah ha-Kohen (1762-1836), who arrived there from Surat in 1798. His commercial interests took him from the Punjab to Dacca across the great Gangetic plain of northern India, and small Jewish trading outposts -- often including a prayer hall and a cemetery -- sprang up in his footsteps from Lucknow to Darjeeling. The fortunes of the Baghdadi families began with the opium trade to China and gradually reached all phases of industry and commerce. The leadership of Calcutta Jewry was held by the Cohen and Ezra families, the latter ranking among the city's most prominent industrial and commercial houses.
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Old 05-15-2008, 08:37 AM   #59
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The city has three synagogues located within a few paces of each other in China Bazar: Neveh Shalom (1831), Beth El (1856) and the magnificent Maghen David (1884). The three obtain a minyan on a rotating basis, using paid congregants. Two small synagogues, since closed, were founded in 1897 and 1924 in the fashionable Park Street area as Jews moved there from China Bazar. Calcutta has had Jewish schools, a religious court, a matza board, charitable and burial associations, a Jewish hospital, several newspapers, a publisher since 1840 and Zionist groups.

Calcutta has had three Jewish sheriffs, and Jews have provided Bengal's first female attorney, several scholars -- both secular and religious -- and journalists, writers, musicians and sportsmen. The most famous Calcutta Jew of recent times is Lt.-Gen. Jack Frederick Ralph Jacob who commanded Indian forces on the eastern front during the 1971 war which led to the establishment of Bangladesh. Before the Second World War there were 3,800 Jews in Calcutta, a number which grew to more than 5,000 with the influx of Jewish refugees from Rangoon; now there are around 120. Jewish visitors are welcomed by the Nahoum family -- one need only drop by at Nahoum's Bakery in New Market.

Jews in Burma

Bene Israel and even some Cochinim followed the trail of prosperity to Calcutta and even beyond, to Rangoon, where another major Jewish community grew up. The first Jew known to settle in Burma was one Solomon Gabirol, probably a Bene Israel, who served as a commissar in King Alaungpaya's army. The community itself dates from the early nineteenth century when Baghdadis from Calcutta pursued their opium-based fortunes eastward, stopping in Rangoon en route to Singapore, Jakarta, Bangkok, Saigon, Manila, Tokyo, Hongkong and Shanghai.

It was not until the 1870s, however, that a sufficient number of Jews was concentrated in Rangoon to form a proper community, and they built the beautiful Musmeah Yeshua Synagogue in 1896. The community once had 126 Sifrei Torah, a Talmud Torah, a Zionist group and numerous charitable and communal organizations. A second synagogue, Beth El, was opened in 1932, and some 700 graves are found in the well-kept cemetery on 91st Street. Satellite communities developed in Mandalay (where there remain a few Jews and a cemetery), Maymo, Moulmein, Bassein, Akyab and Toungyi. Bassein even had a Jewish mayor, a Mr. Raphael, as did Rangoon, one David Sophaer during the 1930s.

The community was virtually destroyed when the Japanese, suspicious of Jews as potential British sympathizers, conquered Burma, driving most of Burma's 1,200 Jews to Calcutta. About 500 returned after the war, and Burmese Judaism enjoyed a brief flowering after independence and the establishment of cordial Israeli-Burmese relations, which were based on the warm friendship between Prime Ministers David Ben-Gurion and U Nu. When Ne Win launched a successful coup in 1962, the position of minorities in Burma generally deteriorated, as did the nation's economy, and most Jews left.

Today there are but a handful of Jews and half-Jews in Rangoon. The synagogue is beautifully maintained through the efforts of Jack Samuels, the community's leader, even though the last regular Shabbat service was held as far back as 1965. While open for all festivals, a minyan is obtained only with assistance from Israeli, American and Canadian diplomats and tourists during the High Holy days. Sadly, the Burmese interlude for Jews has already passed into history.

India's Ashkenazim

The Ashkenazim were the smallest and shortest-lived group of Jews in India. Never forming separate communities, Ashkenazi contributions to India were made by individuals such as Walter Mordechai Haf**ine (1860-1930), the developer of the anti-cholera vaccine. A medical research institute bearing his name flourishes in Bombay today. As temporary home to about 2,000 refugees from Nazi Germany, India benefitted from an influx of Jewish physicians who attached themselves to the various communities of their co-religionists in India's major cities.

Tribal Jews

The most mysterious of India's Jews are also the most controversial. Several Chin-kuki tribal groups in the northeastern Indian states of Manipur, Mizoram, Assam and Nagaland, the western Burmese Chin state and Bangladesh's Chittagong hill tracts claim to be descendents of the tribe of Menashe. According to them, they came from China and lost their religion during centuries of wanderings through remote Asia. A curious religious revival has emerged among them involving dreams and revelations about their history and a return to their "true identity." Living in remote and conflict-ridden tribal areas, they are as inaccessible as they are tantalizing.

There are an estimated 4,300 Jewish tribals in India, with more in Burma and Bangladesh. No one knows quite what to make of these tribals, animists until the last generation, nor what to do about their claims to Jewish identity and their aspiration to immigrate to Israel. Several groups, especially Jerusalem-based Amishav, have made efforts to reintroduce them to Jewish observance, and some have undergone Orthodox conversion. The Israeli ambassador to Burma, Itiel Pann, is sympathetic to their cause, but the Israel government recently denied visitor visas to a delegation of Indian tribals.

Issues Facing Indian Jewry Today

The most significant issue confronting India's Jews is the poor relationship between India and Israel. India extended diplomatic recognition to Israel in the early 1950s and allowed Israel to establish a consulate in Bombay. But relations never developed to the expected exchange of ambassadors. Indeed, a pro-Arab policy has become so embedded in the Indian government that not even the sympathetic Janatha government led by Morarji Desai in the late 1970s was able to reverse this trend.

Indian Jews feel ambivalent; they want foreign Jews to appreciate that India's policies are not antisemitic, but reflect such factors as the importance of the Arab world for India's foreign trade, the political views of its 80,000,000 Muslim citizens, and its aspirations to Third World leadership. On the other hand, the Indian bureaucracy can be remarkably petty in its day-to-day operations, often to the detriment of Jewish concerns. For example, Israelis of Indian origin have a difficult time obtaining visas to visit their homeland.

Indian Jews are well aware that their government's anti-Israel policies do not reflect popular sentiment, especially among the Hindu majority. For example, when the Israeli tennis team were refused visas to participate in the Davis Cup competitions in New Delhi in 1987, a groundswell of pro-Israel opinion emerged in the press, leading India to relent and allow the match to be held, although this year India has announced that it will not send its team for a scheduled Davis Cup round in Tel Aviv.

Indian Jews are closely following the rise of Hindu fundamentalism in such organizations as the Shiv Sena of Maharashtra, the Janatha Party and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad. Many see in these movements allies; they reason that while a secular Indian government has been hostile to Zionism, perhaps a more Hindu one would not be -- and these organizations propose precisely to "Hinduize" India. The affinities between Hindus and Jews go beyond their shared perception of a Muslim adversary, and while secularism has been in the interest of Jews in most nations of exile, it may be that the Indian case is a notable exception.

An issue which concerns foreign Jews visiting India is the rescue of prayer books, ritual objects and Torah scrolls which are being ravaged by a tropical climate and neglect. Books which are salvageable should be brought to Israel where they could be put to use; others should be buried. Many Indian ritual objects, carved arks especially, are unique in the Jewish world. Deserted synagogues contain unenumerated treasures which shall soon be lost forever unless their rescue is prompt.

Another issue concerns the Jewish status of the tribals. Until recently, they were welcomed as quasi-Jews for training by ORT, but for whatever reasons a new policy has been adopted, one which treats them like any other Gentiles. While the question of their Jewish ancestry, in all likelihood, will never be resolved, it remains to be determined how to interpret their claims and whether to make a serious effort to afford them with the conversion they desire, along with prayer books, prayer shawls, Sifrei Torah and, ultimately, immigration to Israel. The Indian press, incidentally, treats Israel's refusing them visas as an instance of Israeli racism and anti-Indianism.

The Bene Israel community of Bombay is faced with the question of assimilation. There are no specific data, but estimates of intermarriage run to about 50 percent. Often the Gentile spouse is converted by a committee of Bene Israel elders, but the status of these conversions is questionable. Related to this issue is the generally poor state of Jewish education among the Bene Israel. They had been more or less dependent upon Cochinim -- and to a lesser degree, Baghdadis -- as teachers, shohatim and hazanim. Now they perform many of these functions themselves, but knowledge and facilities are sparse. The twin questions of assimilation and education, aspects of the generally increasing secularization of Indian society, threaten the continued existence of the community.

Our generation will likely witness the extinction of Indian Jewry. This makes study and collecting imperative. There is much to be learned from an ancient Jewish community which never experienced persecution. For one thing, the commonly-held view of Zionism as simple a response to persecution is called into question by the case of India, where Zionism was embraced despite the affection and hospitality of the host nation. For another, the independent Jewish principality at Cranganore lies buried beneath a thin layer of earth, awaiting archaeological examination. There remain manuscripts in Jewish homes throughout India containing a wealth of poetry, hymns, and Kabbalistic tracts which have never been analyzed or studies, just as there are Jewish artifacts desperately in need of rescue and transfer to museums in Israel and America.

* * *

Dr. Nathan Katz is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at the University of South Florida. Ellen S. Goldberg is a writer, photographer and editor. The couple is working on a book about the Cochin Jews, based on a year's stay there supported by a Fulbright research grant, 1986-87.

Agnostic ya nut case there is less then 5000 jews living in India.
Now ya know why??
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What do the Asians think of Jews

Jews Have Been in China A Long, Long Time
By Karen Primack

Submitted by Stan Weisberg

Scholars are divided in their opinions about when the first Jews came to China.

Some think they came in biblical times, and even theorize about one of the Ten Lost Tribes settling between Tibet and Sichuan.

So said Prof. Xu Xin at public lectures in the Washington DC area on November 19 and 20. Xu is a professor of English and Jewish Studies at Nanjing University in the Peoples Republic of China.

There is unanimous agreement that Jews have been in China at least since the 6th century. One of the earliest pieces of evidence is an 8th century letter written in Persian Hebrew by a Jewish merchant in China, probably a trader on the Silk Road.

(The Silk Road, which extended from China to the Mediterranean Sea, was built by the Romans in the second century B.C.E. and was used for 1200 years. Extending 2000 miles, through mountains and deserts, it enabled Western goods to be traded for Chinese silk for Roman nobles. Jewish merchants traded chiefly in cotton, perfume, and spice.)

In addition, Hebrew prayers were found in northwestern China by British scholars -- prayers written on paper; this is the earliest report of the use of paper for Hebrew prayers. Also, a 9th century Arab traveler wrote about his experiences, which included a report of a massacre of Christians, Moslems and Jews in southern China. Marco Polo also made mention of Jews in China

Kaifeng Attracts Jews

Up to the 11th century, these Jews were merchants and traders who came back and forth to China, but during the 11th century, the first group of Jews came to Kaifeng to stay, and they followed their traditions for many hundreds of years. Much literature has been left about them. Although the first arrivals were chiefly single men who had traded on the Silk Road, seventy families with women and children were also among the early Jewish settlers.

Xu reminds his audiences that "China was rich then, and it was a good place to live and to do business." It was the time of the Song Dynasty, whose capital was Kaifeng, a very prosperous international city with a population of 1.5 million.

Jews met the Song emperor, who encouraged them to "observe and hand down your religion here," as a stele (stone pillar) of the time relates. Because he could not pronounce their names, the emperor gave the Jews seven family surnames, which gave them legitimacy. "If you do not have one of these seven family names, you are not considered Jewish," Xu explains.

The first synagogue was built in Kaifeng in 1163.

The Jewish community was influenced by Chinese culture, including Confucianism and the Chinese classics, which had to be studied for the imperial examinations, for official appointments, and for social status.

The community grew, and more and larger synagogues were built. By 1500 the population peaked at about 5000. Kaifeng was repeatedly destroyed by the flooding of the Yellow River, which killed many, including Jews. The floods of 1663 alone killed more than 100,000 people; only 2090 Jewish families survived. Kublai Khan then moved the capital to Peking.

The Jews always intermarried in China, for the Jewish community was never large enough to marry among themselves. However, it was the Chinese custom for the wife to take the husband's religion. This enabled Jewish traditions to be maintained for seven centuries.

The 16th century saw the beginning of the decline of the Jewish community of Kaifeng. Hebrew was not really spoken anymore. Assimilation occurred because Jews spent more time studying for Chinese classics examinations and less time studying Judaism. They also adopted Chinese names. The Jews were known as Wei Wei (meaning "from the West") or a Chinese expression that translated as "the sect that plucks out sinew," in reference to one of the rules of kashrut.

This community was first discovered by Christian missionaries at the end of the 16th century. An historic meeting between Jews and a Jesuit missionary took place in June of 1605, and according to Xu, ever since then missionaries and scholars have always sought out the Jews of Kaifeng. At first there was great interest in the Jews among Christians because they believed that these isolated Jews would still possess an original Torah, not changed by rabbis during the Talmudic period, who, they thought, removed references to the coming of the Messiah.

In 1722, Christian missionaries drew a diagram of the old synagogue; it is now used by the Diaspora Museum in Tel Aviv.

Xu found, to his delight, 59 books written by Chinese Jews of Kaifeng in the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, where he has studied. One of the books, written in both Hebrew and Chinese 400 years ago, traced 10 generations of a family. In addition, three steles of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries report on their history.

The Kaifeng synagogue was repaired or rebuilt several times until the 19th century, when the last rabbi died and Hebrew was no longer taught. (Hebrew had been taught continuously for 700 years.)

But, amazingly, "a sense of Jewish identity still persists" in Kaifeng, according to Xu, as today's descendants are "trying to pick up lost traditions" of their ancestors 900 years ago.

The Modern Era

Meanwhile, the 19th century saw a westward migration of Jews, especially from Germany, and, between 1820 and 1920, a movement of Sephardi Jews in Mesopotamia eastward to India, Malaysia and China.

After the Opium Wars of the mid-19th century, in which China was defeated by Britain, China was forced to open its doors to Western society. Among others, the Sassoons arrived in Shanghai, liked it, and brought in their friends and relatives. By 1900 there were 700 Jews in Shanghai, along with synagogues, a Jewish cemetery, and ritually-slaughtered poultry. In the 1930's the Sassoons donated millions of dollars to help Jewish refugees from Europe.

Pogroms in Poland and Russia in 1905-1917 brought a new migration of Eastern Europeans to Shanghai. By 1930 there were 4000 Ashkenazic Jews there, who survived by setting up small businesses. They established many facilities and a Jewish press. These Jews were early Zionists. According to Xu, Chinese president Dr. Sun Yat-sen published a letter in 1920 supporting Zionism.

In 1937-39, refugees from Nazi Germany and Austria found all doors closed to them except the doors of Shanghai, the only city in the world that did not require a visa from these Jews. By 1941, some 20,000 of these refugees' lives had been saved.

Another Jewish community came to Shanghai in 1942: all the faculty and students from the renown Mir Yeshiva of Poland. Although Shanghai was occupied by the Japanese by then, the Jews were ghettoized and allowed to study and worship. These scholars were virtually the only ones who survived as a group after the war; the Mir Yeshiva students and teachers were largely responsible for the continuation of Ashkenazic yeshiva learning in the US and Israel after the war.

By 1945, there was a Jewish community in Shanghai numbering 30,000, with its own autonomous government presiding over marriages and burials. Today, Xu says, some Chinese still remember their Jewish neighbors.

Another Jewish community settled in Harbin, in northeastern China, after 1898, when this city was chosen as headquarters of the East China Railway. Many people were brought in from Russia, including Jewish merchants. In 1903 the Jewish population reached 500, in part because the Jews were never discriminated against by the Chinese, as they were by the Russians. Xu notes that, during the Chinese-Russian War of 1904, Jewish soldiers stayed on in Harbin and brought their relatives from Russia. By 1908, Harbin's 8000 Jews enjoyed a better life than they had in Russia.

However, the Japanese invasion of northern China in the 1930's resulted in a diminution of the Jewish community in Harbin. After 1945 most Jews had emigrated to America, Canada, Australia or Israel. By 1950 the majority were gone, and the last synagogue service was held in Harbin in 1956.


In China today, the descendants of the Jews of Kaifeng pass remnants of this heritage from generation to generation through oral legends, which enable them to keep a sense of Jewish identity. Xu comments that "even today some have a strong sense of Jewish identity," and even list "Jew" as their ethnic group in the official government census, even though such a listing is discouraged (China does not want to encourage ethnic divisions among its huge population.)

Xu estimates that there are 400-500 descendants of Kaifeng Jews in China today

Xu also reports that in the last 10 years, some Jews have come back to China for business reasons, and those in Hong Kong are not leaving, holding hopes that the business prospects will remain good after China's takeover of the city in 1997. There are 1000 Jewish diplomats and business people today in Peking, and more in Shanghai. But there is no synagogue or religious school...YET!

"Jewish life in China will continue," Xu believes.
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